In evaluating your condition, your doctor will perform the following:
- Medical history and physical exam
- Urinalysis (testing of a urine sample) to confirm that blood is present in the urine. If red blood cells are present, further testing of the urine (including a urine culture) may help pinpoint where the blood is coming from and why. White blood cells in the urine signals a possible urinary tract infection (UTI); red blood cells that clump together to form little tubes (called casts) may indicate kidney disease; and large amounts of protein in the urine may also indicate kidney disease. Cancer cells can also be detected.
- Urine cytology may be needed to look for cancer cells in the urine.
- Blood test. A blood test can help assess kidney function. High levels of creatinine (a waste product of normal muscle breakdown) in the blood may indicate kidney disease.
- Cystoscopy is a procedure that allows your doctor to use a small tube fitted with a camera to look inside the urethra and bladder. Cystoscopy can assist in detecting cancer in the bladder, especially if cancer cells are found in the urine.
- CT scan, MRI or ultrasound – these different imaging studies may reveal a tumor, a kidney or bladder stone; an enlarged prostate; or other cause for hematuria.