Diabetes is a disease in which the body doesn't produce or properly
use insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas, an organ near
the stomach. Insulin is needed to turn sugar and other food into energy.
When you have diabetes, your body either doesn't make enough insulin
or can’t use its own insulin as well as it should, or both. This
causes sugars to build up too high in your blood.
Diabetes mellitus is defined as a fasting blood glucose of 126 milligrams
per deciliter (mg/dL) or more. “Pre-diabetes” is a condition
in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not yet diabetic.
People with pre-diabetes are at increased risk for developing Type 2 diabetes,
heart disease and stroke, and have one of these conditions:
Impaired fasting glucose (100 to 125 mg/dL)
Impaired glucose tolerance (fasting glucose less than 126 mg/dL and a glucose level between 140 and
199 mg/dL two hours after taking an oral glucose tolerance test)
What is the difference between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes?
Type 2 diabetes is the most common form. It appears most often in middle-aged
adults; however, adolescents and young adults are developing Type 2 diabetes
at an alarming rate. It develops when the body doesn’t make enough
insulin and doesn’t efficiently use the insulin it makes (insulin
Type 1 diabetes is a chronic, autoimmune disease that usually occurs in
children and young adults. In Type 1, the pancreas makes little or no
insulin, and over time, eventually stops producing insulin altogether.
Without insulin (in the form of daily injections or an insulin pump),
people with Type 1 diabetes won’t survive.
Both forms of diabetes may be inherited in genes. A family history of
diabetes can significantly increase the risk of developing diabetes. Untreated
diabetes can lead to many serious medical problems. These include blindness,
kidney disease, nerve disease, limb amputations and cardiovascular disease.
How are insulin resistance, diabetes and cardiovascular disease related?
Diabetes is treatable, but even when glucose levels are under control,
it greatly increases the risk of heart disease and stroke. In fact, most
people with diabetes experience some form of heart or blood vessel disease,
which can be fatal.
Pre-diabetes and subsequent Type 2 diabetes usually result from insulin
resistance. When insulin resistance or diabetes occur with other cardiovascular
disease risk factors (such as obesity, high blood pressure, abnormal cholesterol
and high triglycerides), the risk of heart disease and stroke is even greater.
Insulin resistance is associated with atherosclerosis (fatty buildups
in arteries) and blood vessel disease. That’s why it’s important
to prevent and control insulin resistance and diabetes. Obesity and physical
inactivity are important risk factors for insulin resistance, Type 2 diabetes
and cardiovascular disease.
How is diabetes treated?
When diabetes is detected, a doctor may prescribe changes in eating habits,
weight control and exercise programs, and even medications to keep it
in check. Those diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes require daily insulin and
may also be advised to make lifestyle changes to prevent insulin resistance.
It's critical for people with diabetes to have regular checkups. Work
closely with your health care provider to manage diabetes and control
any other risk factors. For example, blood pressure for people with diabetes
and high blood pressure should be lower than 130/80 mm Hg.
American Heart Association Recommendation
Diabetes is a major risk factor for stroke and coronary heart disease,
which includes heart attack. People with diabetes may avoid or delay heart
and blood vessel disease by controlling other risk factors. It's especially
important to control weight and cholesterol with a low-saturated-fat,
low-cholesterol diet and regular aerobic physical activity. It's also
important to lower high blood pressure and not smoke.