Avoiding certain risk factors and
engaging in other protective factors may help to lower one's risk of certain gynecologic cancers. Some of
these risk factors include:
- Being Overweight
- Not getting enough exercise or physical activity
- Persistent infection with high risk Human Papillomavirus
- Lack of regular follow up and screening with Pap Tests
There are some risk factors that we can't change including our:
- Advancing age and being female
- Having a personal and/or family history of BRCA mutation and/or ovary or
- Having a personal and/or family history of Lynch Syndrome and/or colon
or endometrial cancer
- Infertility or no pregnancies
- Tamoxifen use for breast cancer
Following a healthy diet, regular exercise, maintaining a healthy weight,
keeping your blood pressure and diabetes under good control and management,
and seeing your doctor regularly for screening and evaluation are all
measures that you can take to help lower your cancer risk.
Cervical Cancer Screening
- Women younger than 21 years of age should not be screened.
- Women between the ages of 21 and 65 without risk factors (DES exposure
or immunodeficiency) should undergo cytologic screening (PAP test) every 3 years
- Those aged 30-65 wishing to extend the screening interval could undergo
screening with both cytologic exam (PAP test) and human papillomavirus
testing (HPV) every 5 years
- Women older than 65 and who have been adequately screened (with no prior
history of CIN2+ in the last 20 years) should not be screened.
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
The American Cancer Society
American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology
American Society for Clinical Pathology
Vaccination Recommendations for Females:
Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2012.